What can cause kidney damage?
Some over-the-counter painkillers can be particularly dangerous for kidney cells. They constrict the capillaries in the kidneys, impairing blood circulation and causing oxygen starvation. They can also cause inflammation on an allergic basis.
Painkillers can cause increased blood pressure, fluid retention, water retention and elevated potassium levels. People with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and the elderly are, particularly at risk. It is important to avoid taking painkillers regularly to protect the kidneys and prevent further damage.
The kidneys can only maintain fluid and electrolyte balance if the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for the body’s homeostasis, is functioning properly and is well regulated by hormones. If the hormonal regulation is defective or the autonomic nervous system is poorly regulated, especially in the parasympathetic state, kidney function is inadequate.
How the kidneys work
On average, an adult human kidney pumps around 1500 litres of blood a day. This means that our blood (about 5 litres) circulates through them 300-350 times a day. Normally, therefore, about 1300 ml of blood per minute passes through the blood vessels and tubules, which filter and remove the end products and breakdown products of the body’s metabolism, toxins, excess water and mineral salts. The result of this complex process is the formation of 1-2 litres of urine per day, which is passed from the kidneys through the ureter, bladder and urethra.
Regulation of the kidneys at the molecular level
The next step in regulation is the regulatory role of so-called tissue hormones, or neurotransmitters, at the molecular level.
Each of the two kidneys contains around 1.2 million small “sewage treatment plants”, each working independently. The combined length of the renal glomeruli and renal tubules is 220 to 240 kilometres, and the diameter of the renal tubules is 40 microns. In such a very thin and incredibly long tubular organ, where vasodilation (opening of blood vessels) plays a huge role, the role of regulating neurotransmitters is particularly important.
The role of nitric oxide
Nitric oxide (produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via L-arginine metabolism) is an important regulator of vascular wall function. Damage to this system plays a role in several pathological processes in the vascular system, including atherosclerosis (vasoconstriction), angiogenesis (the ability of blood vessels to grow and re-grow), neointimal hyperplasia (thickening of the vascular membrane) and pulmonary hypertension (increased blood pressure in a small blood vessel).
Nitric oxide (NO), as a neurotransmitter, has several important functions, including opening blood vessels, which allow blood to flow at a higher flow rate through a larger cross-sectional area with lower blood pressure. It also helps to open microcapillaries (capillaries), improving the supply of oxygen and nutrients to cells. Regulation of blood flow to the kidneys is maintained by medullary perfusion (adequate blood flow through the renal tubules). If this is working well, the kidneys will also have adequate tubular sodium reabsorption.
There are three isoforms of the NO-producing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The regulation of NO synthesis in the kidneys is complex. Recent studies have highlighted the different roles of nNOS and eNOS regulation in the regulation of NO synthesis in the kidney.
The complex physiological role of the kidneys
In addition to their excretory function, kidneys also have non-secretory functions. The kidneys play a role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure not only by maintaining the volume and composition of extracellular fluid but also by secreting (producing) a hormone, called renin.
Other endocrine functions of the kidneys include the regulation of red blood cell production (erythropoiesis). 90% of the regulatory hormone, erythropoietin, is produced in the kidneys. Erythropoietin regulates the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. In many cases, the lack of the regulatory hormone is the cause of anaemia, not iron deficiency.
Do animals suffer from the same health problems as humans?
In pigs raised in livestock, 10-15% of the herd is now anaemic. When the urine of these animals is examined, the rapid test always reveals very significant values indicating impaired renal function (creatinine and urea values double or triple the upper
limit of the reference range and a high urine volume weight). Pathological examination of the kidneys of pigs also reveals pathological evidence of kidney damage.
The relationship between vitamin D levels and kidney function
The final step in the synthesis of the vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (also known as calcitriol), occurs in the kidneys.
Why do so many people have low calcitriol (D-hormone) levels in their blood? With vitamin D supplements we take vitamin D3, cholecalciferol, which is not the effective hormone D. The liver makes it into calcidiol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) and the kidneys make it into calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the molecule that is the active D hormone.
If blood tests show a reduced or low GFR (a measure of the kidney’s ability to filter blood), this has a major role in the development of osteoporosis and an increased risk of cancer caused by a lack of hormone D.
Many other regulatory molecules are also formed in the kidneys and, when released into the circulation, act as hormones or as local paracrine mediators (local hormones).
A fundamental component of kidney function: nitric oxide
The key to regular kidney function is the regular rate of nitric oxide production, which results in a flexible vascular system.
In ischaemic renal disease (IRD), the amount of blood flowing through the kidneys is reduced, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is significantly reduced and there is a loss of renal parenchyma (renal cortex) due to the narrowing of the renal arteries.
Nitric oxide is an essential chemical messenger produced in the body and found in the bloodstream. The body’s production of nitric oxide causes blood vessels to constrict and dilate, which improves blood flow to all organs and cells.
From about the age of 40, nitric oxide production in all humans inevitably declines, so people in their 50s and 60s have only about half the previous amount of nitric oxide. This is reflected in significantly poorer blood circulation in the heart and kidneys and thus in the whole body. However, as long as the body has the substances it needs to produce nitric oxide, the production of this important component will never cease completely.
Foods that produce nitric oxide
Scientific studies on specific foods and herbs support the old, traditional approach to heart regeneration. Many of the foods tested, which have been used for centuries to treat cardiovascular problems, have been found to provide the body with highly effective substances that it uses to convert nitric oxide.
Examples include green leafy vegetables such as spinach, horseradish, white cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli, swiss chard, and many root vegetables such as celery, carrots and beetroot. These are all excellent sources of the starting materials needed to produce nitric oxide. It is therefore essential to include these foods regularly in your diet.
Observations in animals
According to Alan Archibald, a researcher at the University of Edinburgh, a drug trial in pigs gives the best results when it comes to studying the human effect.
Over the past 15 years, there have been drastic changes in the renal status of pigs. From 1990 to 2011, our chief product developer examined the kidneys of 7-12,000 pigs per year, and between 2011 and 2017, he dissected nearly 300 pigs raised in pig farms and sent them to slaughterhouses. This is known as abattoir monitoring. The experience shows that the problem is in the feed formulation of the animals being reared, not in the fungal toxin content of the grains used for feed.
The fact, that a 4-5-month-old pig, despite its young age, does not produce enough nitric oxide was worrying. A 4-5-month-old pig is at the beginning of its reproductive stage, in human terms about 14-15 years old.
Where is the problem?
Could there be a reason for the inadequate production of NO other than age?
We already know about the relationship between age and NO production and the role of NO in blood vessel opening, but one important factor has not yet been mentioned: lysine-arginine antagonism, which is the most important cause of the lack of NO production.
In the following, we will review the importance of this process, which is unfortunately ignored by the feed and food industry.
Why can arginine be deficient in the human body?
About 20% of the human body is protein, which plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids influence the function of organs, glands, tendons and arteries and are involved in the transport of nutrients. They are also important in wound healing and tissue regeneration, especially in muscles, bones, skin and hair, and in the removal of all kinds of deposits produced during metabolism.
In recent years, the use of L-lysine as a free amino acid flavour enhancer in processed foods has been on the rise. Lysine has a delicious taste. Lysine has negative effects on blood circulation due to its beneficial taste. Because lysine and arginine are very similar, the two amino acids share the same transport molecule, the so-called membrane transporter protein (carrier molecule).
Free amino acids are practically absent in large quantities in nature. The number of carrier molecules in the body is limited, and the absorption of free amino acids follows the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The absorption of lysine from the intestine draws the carrier molecules away from the body, and therefore a local arginine deficiency occurs due to the lack of carrier molecules.
Fulvicherb – Synergy contains a high amount of fulvic acid, which has two advantages for us. Because of its molecular weight, it is easily absorbed by simple diffusion in the first part of the small intestine. It contains a large number of carboxylic radicals relative to the weight of the molecule, which allows the free amino acids to bind in complex form (absorption in complex form ensures that the process does not use up the finite number of available carrier molecules)
Fulvicherb – Synergy mixes with food in the stomach. The amount of fulvic acid present allows the free amino acids in the food, in particular lysine and arginine, to be absorbed as a fulvic acid-amino acid complex. If the free amino acids are absorbed as a complex, lysine-arginine antagonism does not develop.
The presence of arginine in the body allows the formation of nitric oxide and vasodilation (opening of blood vessels). This physiologically based action helps to maintain circulation and optimal blood pressure.
Arginine – a Nobel Prize-winning discovery
In 1998, 3 Nobel Prizes were awarded for clarifying the physiological role of L-arginine and nitric oxide.
The medical term for the restoration of healthy kidney function is renal ischaemia-reperfusion (RIR). Several independent research institutes have carried out physiological experiments with various experimental animals, where renal ischaemia-reperfusion (RIR) has been induced with L-arginine.
Fulvicherb – Synergy’s “protected arginine” (fulvic acid-arginine complex) content has a much better biological potency than L-arginine itself, according to the Michaelis-Menten kinetics law.
Overall, Fulvicherb – Synergy directly supports optimal blood pressure, tissue oxygenation and, of course, proper kidney functions through its “protected arginine” content. Indirectly, it has a positive effect on blood circulation by maintaining good-quality intestinal flora and helping the liver to function properly.
Biochemical outlook – histamine sensitivity and gut flora
The three substances that have the greatest effect on the regulation of blood vessel opening (vasodilation) are nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and biogenic amine histamine.
Nitric oxide is involved in the activation of prostaglandin production and its effects are synergistic (mutually reinforcing).
The overproduction of histamine biogenic amine is a negative effect of harmful intestinal bacteria. The so-called decarboxylase enzyme-producing bacteria play the largest role in this. The liver, in optimal condition and capacity, also has an important role to play in the very fine, precision regulation of optimal histamine and other tissue hormones in the body through the production of the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO).
Nitric oxide is crucial in many physiological processes and adequate levels are essential for maintaining health.
Read the article in German: Verbesserung der Nierenfunktion auf natürlicher weise
Read the article in Polish: Naturalna poprawa funkcji nerek